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CARICOM Member States

Energy security is one of the greatest challenges facing the Caribbean region. Dependence on imported oil makes the region vulnerable to price shocks within the increasingly volatile global energy markets. Further, inefficiencies and weaknesses within the energy system designs, including the electricity grids and the fuel storage and distribution networks, create additional pressures that: (a) Are highly susceptible to the impacts of natural disasters, such as hurricanes, storms and floods, which frequently impact the region; and (b) Causes energy prices to be relatively high, wherein the Caribbean region pays 3‑4 times more than the U.S. and other developed economies for electricity and fuels.

There is general consensus that there is an urgency with which the countries of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) should transform their energy situation. This transformation is recognized as one that ought to shift the countries from their current state of inefficiency and dependence on mostly expensive, imported petroleum‑fuels to one in which energy is sustainably managed through the cost‑effective, efficient, conversion, delivery and use of diverse, including indigenous, sources of energy.

In order to introduce greater flexibility and increasing energy security into regional energy systems, there is need for a shift toward greater reliance on cleaner energy sources that are more predictable in pricing and supply sources. But whilst there are significant similarities in the energy challenges facing CARICOM Member States, there is great diversity in the unique energy sector opportunities, ranging from existing and new options for natural gas production and use, to growing possibilities for wind and solar applications, to the significant interest in and additional opportunities for geothermal and hydropower, as well as emerging ocean and bioenergy, development.

   Antigua and Barbuda

Country Profile

Ministry

Minister

CARICOM Energy Focal Point

Ministry of Public Utilities, Energy Civil Aviation and Transportation
Government Office Complex Queen Elizabeth Highway
St John’s

Hon. Robin Yearwood
Minister of Public Utilities, Energy, Civil Aviation and Transportation

Mr. Edson Joseph
Permanent Secretary

Energy Policy

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Location

The islands are located in the Eastern Caribbean at the southern end of the Leeward Islands, 40 km (25 Mi) northeast of Montserrat.

History

Columbus landed on Antigua in 1493 and named the island after the church of Santa Maria de la Antigua in Seville, Spain. It was colonised by the English in 1632 and apart from a brief French occupation in 1667, remained British until becoming an `Associated State’ in 1967. The islands attained full independence on 1 November, 1981.

In the late 18th century, the islands served as the major naval dockyard for the British fleet in the Eastern Caribbean.

Economic Summary

Tourism is the main national income earner. Dry climate and a large number of white sand beaches play an important role in the growing cargo and cruise passenger traffic.

The services sector has steadily grown to become an area of significant economic activity.

Agriculture, fishing and a growing manufacturing sector are also contributing to national economic development.

Airport

VC Bird International (Antigua) Codrington (Barbuda)

Business Hours

Commercial: 8:00 am to 12:00 noon: 1:00 to 4:00 pm. Monday to Saturday. Closed on Thursday afternoons.

Government: 8:00 am to 3:00 pm

National Holidays

New Year’s Day 1 Jan; Good Friday; Easter Monday Labour Day, first Monday in May; Whit Monday, first Monday in June; Carnival, first Monday and Tuesday of August; Independence Day 1 November; Vere Cornwall Bird Snr. Day, December 9; Christmas Day, December 25; Boxing Day, December 26. Holidays that fall on a Sunday are observed the following Monday.

Date of CARICOM Membership

4 July, 1974

The Flag

Aquamarine  – The sea

Yellow – Rich land resources

Black  – Unity and force

Triangular shape  – Determination of the people

   The Bahamas

Country Profile

Ministry

Minister

CARICOM Energy Focal Point

Ministry of the Environment and Housing
2nd Floor Charlotte House
Nassau

Hon. Romauld Ferreira
Minster of the Environment and Housing

Mrs. Janice Miller Permanent Secretary
Ministry of the Environment and Housing

Energy Policy

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Location

The Bahamas is an archipelagic state lying about 50 miles off the coast of Florida, extending over 750 miles southeasterly along the coast of Cuba to within 60 miles of Haiti and west of Turks and Caicos Islands.

The archipelago comprises about 100 000 square miles with more than 4, 000 islands, islets and cays, but it is commonly known as the country of 700 islands. Twenty-nine islands are permanently inhabited.

History

The islands were colonized by the British in the 16th century. The archipelago was a British Crown Colony from 1717 until internal self-rule in 1964. Independence was attained on 10 July, 1973.

Economic Summary

Tourism is the mainstay of the economy, providing employment, directly and indirectly for over 50, 000 people. The industry is oriented mainly towards short-stay visitors and is concentrated in Nassau and in Grand Bahama Island. There is a strong offshore financial services sector. There is also a container trans-shipment port on Grand Bahama, as well as some export manufacturing.

Airport

Nassau International (New Providence) and Freeport International (Grand Bahama)

Business Hours

Commercial: 9:00 a.m. to 5: 00 p.m. Monday to Saturday. Shops close on Thursday afternoons and open on selected Sundays to accommodate cruise ship visits.

Government: 9:00 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. Monday to Friday.

National Holidays

New Year’s Day 1 January; Good Friday; Easter Monday; Whit Monday, first Monday in June; Labour Day, First Friday in June; Independence Day, July 10; Emancipation day, first Monday in August; Discovery Day, October 12; Christmas Day, December 25; Boxing Day, December 26. Holidays that fall on Saturday or Sunday are observed on the following Monday.

Date of CARICOM Membership

4 July, 1983

The Flag

Aquamarine  – The sea

Yellow   – Rich land resources

Black   – Unity and force

Triangular shape  – Determination of the people

   Barbados

Country Profile

Ministry

Minister

CARICOM Energy Focal Point

Ministry of Energy and Water Resources
Trinity Business Centre
Country Road
St. Michael

Hon. Wilfred Abrahams
Minister of Energy and Water Resources

Mr. Jehu Wiltshire, Permanent Secretary
Ministry of Energy and Water Resources

Energy Policy

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Location

Barbados is the most easterly of the Caribbean islands. It is located approximately 120 km (75 mi) from Saint Lucia and 300km (200mi) northeast from Trinidad and Tobago. It is primarily low-lying, with some higher areas in the island’s interior.

History

First sighted by the Portuguese but settled by the English in 1627 and remained a British Colony until independence in 1966. The Barbados House of Assembly is the third oldest legislature in the Americas, dating from 1639.

Economic Summary

Tourism is the main industry of this broad-based economy. The off-shore finance and informatics are also important foreign exchange earners. There is also a light manufacturing sector which is focused mainly on the local market although there is some exporting to other Caribbean countries. The products include foodstuff, beer, flour, animal feeds and chemicals. The main agro-industries are sugar refining and rum distilling, each with substantial export production.

In food production, this country is self-sufficient in eggs and almost self-sufficient in chicken. Locally produced pork, beef and lamb supply is a significant proportion of the domestic market.

Airport

Grantley Adams International (Christ Church)

Business Hours

Business hours:

Commercial 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Monday to Friday.

8:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. Saturday.

Governments: 8:15 am to 4:30 pm Monday to Friday.

National Holidays

New Year’s Day, January 1; Errol Barrow Day, January 21; Good Friday; Easter Monday; National Heroes’; Day, April 28; Labour Day May 1; Whit Monday (around June);Emancipation Day, August 1; Kadooment Day; first Monday in August; Independence Day, November 30; Christmas Day, December 25; Boxing Day, December 26. Holidays that fall on a Sunday are observed the following Monday.

Date of CARICOM Membership

1 August, 1973

The Flag

Blue – Sea and sky

Gold – The sands

Brittania’s Trident   – The shaft of the trident is broken as an indication of the break with the historical and constitutional ties of the past

   Belize

Country Profile

Ministry

Minister

CARICOM Energy Focal Point

Ministry of Finance, Public Service, Energy and Public Utilities
Market Square
Belmopan City

Hon. Frank Mena
Minister of State Ministry of Finance, Public Service, Energy and Public Utilities

Dr. Peter Allen
Chief Executive Officer Ministry of Finance, Public Service, Energy and Public Utilities

Energy Policy

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Location

Belize lies on the Caribbean Coast of Central America. It borders the Caribbean Sea to the east, Mexico to the north-northwest and Guatemala to the south-southwest. Belize is a land of thick forest, abundant wildlife, rivers and waterfalls.

History

Belize was part of Central America, which flourished between 300 and 900 AD. The country changed hands between Spain and Britain from the early 1600s until 1862, when it became British Honduras. The country was renamed Belize in 1973 and gained independence in 1981.

Economic Summary

Agriculture is the leading sector. Citrus -orange and grapefruit- products are processed into frozen concentrate for export. Meanwhile, efforts are advancing to diversify into non-tradition crops such as papaya, cucumber and ginger. Other export crops include cocoa, vegetables and tropical fruits.

Marine products have become an important source of foreign exchange as well as being a vital domestic food source.

The forestry industry has been growing in recent years. Government has initiated a national reforestation programme, adding new impetus to this sector’s development.

Tourism is on the upswing, realising some of the nation’s potential as a specialist holiday destination. The barrier (coral) reef- the second longest in the world- is a popular site for scuba diving, Mayan archaeological sites are among a number of important tourist attractions being promoted

Airport

Phillip Goldson International

Business Hours

Commercial: 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Monday to Friday.

Government: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 pm Monday to Friday.

National Holidays

New Year’s Day, January 1; Baron Bliss Day, March 9; Good Friday; Holy Saturday; Easter Monday; Labour Day, May 1; Commonwealth Day, May 24; St. George’s Caye day, September 10; Independence Day, September 21; Columbus Day, October 12; Garifuna Settlement Day, November 19; Christmas Day December 25; Boxing Day December 26Holidays that fall on a Sunday are observed the following Monday.

Date of CARICOM Membership

1 May, 1974

The Flag

Blue, white and red – Unity of the nation

Wreath – 50 laurel leaves representing the long struggle for independence since 1950

Centre – Coat of arms

   The Commonwealth of Dominica

Country Profile

Ministry

Minister

CARICOM Energy Focal Point

Ministry of Trade, Energy and Employment
4th Floor Financial Centre Building
Kennedy Avenue
Roseau

Hon. Ian Douglas
Minister of Trade, Energy and Employment

Mr. Michael Fadelle
Coordinator, Renewable Energy Programme, Ministry of Trade, Energy and Employment

Energy Policy

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Location

The Commonwealth of Dominica lies between Guadeloupe to the north and Martinique to the south. The island is commonly known as the nature isle of the Caribbean due to its seemingly unspoiled natural beauty.

History

Dominica was occupied first by the Amerindians. It was sighted and named by Christopher Columbus in 1493. The island changed hands several times in the 18th century, but finally became British in 1805. It was joined to the Leeward, then the Windward Islands. The island achieved separate status in 1960 and became a British Associate State in 1967. In 1978, the island gained independence.

Economic Summary

Agriculture and fishing are important sectors of the economy. At one time the main export crop was bananas, but the industry has steadily declined as conditions on the world market for the production and export of bananas are increasingly not in the Region’s favour. Copra, produced from local coconuts, supports the main manufacturing industry, soap.

Eco-tourism is being promoted with rainforests, volcanic scenery and scuba diving as the main attractions.

A deep-water harbour and a cruise ship terminal are some of the infrastructural development efforts impacting positively on the national economy.

Airport

Melville Hall, Canefield

Business Hours

Commercial: 8:00 am to 4:00 pm Monday to Friday; 8:00 am to 1:00 pm Saturday

Government: 8:00 am to 5:00 pm Monday to Friday

National Holidays

New Year’s Day, January 1; Carnival, Monday and Tuesday before Ash Wednesday; Good Friday; Holy Saturday; Easter Monday; Labour Day, first Monday in May;  Whit Monday (50 days after Easter Sunday); August Monday, first Monday in August; Independence Day, November 3, Community Day Service, November 4; Christmas Day, December 25; Boxing Day December 26.  Holidays that fall on a Sunday are observed the following Monday.

Date of CARICOM Membership

1 May, 1974

The Flag

Green – Lush vegetation

White – Peace and purity

Black  – African origins of most of the population

Yellow  – Caribs

Red Disc  – Socialism

Ten Stars   – The ten island parishes

Parrot  – Sisserou – national bird, found only on the island

   Grenada

Country Profile

Ministry

Minister

CARICOM Energy Focal Point

Ministry of Infrastructure Development, Public Utilities, Energy, Transport and Implementation
St. George’s

Hon. Gregory Bowen
Minister of Infrastructure Development, Public Utilities, Energy, Transport and Implementation

Ms. Patricia Clarke
Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Infrastructure Development, Public Utilities, Energy, Transport and Implementation

Energy Policy

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Location

Known as the Spice Isle, Grenada is located in the southeastern Caribbean Sea and includes the Grenadine islands of Carriacou and Petite Martinique. It is located north of Trinidad and Tobago, and south of St. Vincent and the Grenadines.

History

Columbus landed on the island in 1498, but the French first settled there in 1650. It was alternately ruled by the French and British until 1783, when under the Treaty of Versailles the island was ceded to the British. It was joined to the Windward Islands in 1833, and was a part of the West Indies Federation in 1958-1962. The island gained independence in 1974. The Maurice Bishop Government, which came to power in 1979, was toppled by an internal coup in 1983. An interim government prepared the way for the 1984 elections.

Economic Summary

The Grenadian economy is highly diversified with the main contributors to economic growth in 2012 being offshore education, real estate, transport and communication, wholesale and retail trade, construction and financial services and manufacturing.

Agriculture is also an important sector. The country’s principal exports include fresh fruits and vegetables, cocoa and fish. Grenada is also one of the world’s top producers/exporters of nutmeg which accounts for more than 50% of the country’s agricultural export earnings.  In recent years, Grenada has enjoyed high world prices for nutmeg and cocoa.

Tourism is a growing sector in the country.

There is a small offshore financial-sector, legislation of which was updated in 1996.

Airport

Point Salines International

Business Hours

General: 8:00 am to 4:00 pm Monday to Thursday

Friday 8:00 am to 5:00 pm. There is one break from 12:00 noon to 1:00 pm.

National Holidays

New Year’s Day, January 1; Independence Day, February 7; Good Friday; Easter Monday; Labour Day, May 1; Whit Monday; Corpus Christi (as decreed) Emancipation Day, first Monday in August; Carnival, second Monday and Tuesday in August, Thanksgiving Day, October 25; Christmas Day, December 25; Boxing Day, December 26Holidays that fall on a Sunday are observed the following Monday.

Date of CARICOM Membership

 1 May, 1974

The Flag

Green – Fertility of the land

Red – Vitality, determination, liberation

Yellow – Sunshine, friendliness, wisdom

Stars – Nation’s seven Parishes

Nutmeg – Importance of spice to economy

   The Republic of Guyana

Country Profile

Ministry

Minister

CARICOM Energy Focal Point

Ministry of Public Infrastructure
Wight’s Lane
Kingston
Georgetown

Hon. David Patterson
Minister of Public Infrastructure

Dr. Mahender Sharma
Chief Executive Officer, Guyana Energy Agency

Energy Policy

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Location

Guyana lies on the northern coastline of South America. It is bordered to the east by Suriname, to the south-west by Brazil, to the north-west by Venezuela and to the north by the Atlantic Ocean. It is the site of the Headquarters of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM).

History

The original inhabitants were the Amerindians. Guyana was settled by the Dutch in the 16th century and changed hands among the Dutch, British, and French from the late 16th century. It was finally ceded to Britain in 1814. Independence was achieved in 1966; and the Cooperative Republic of Guyana was established in 1970.

Economic Summary

Agriculture is the main sector, while the forestry, fishing and mining sectors are important areas of economic activity in Guyana.

Manufacturing, mainly the processing and refining of agricultural products continues to be of importance to Guyana. The country continues to diversify its economy with emphasis being placed on its Information Communication Technology and Services sectors. In addition, the country is also focusing on tourism, energy and light manufacturing.

Airports

Cheddi Jagan International, Timehri

Eugene F. Correira International Airport

Business Hours

Commercial: 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Monday to Thursday; Saturday 8:00 a.m. to 12 noon

Government: 8:00 am to 4:30 pm. Monday to Friday

National Holidays

New Year’s Day, January 1; Eid-ul-Azah (as decreed);

Republic Day, February 23; Phagwah (as decreed); Youman Nabi (as decreed) Good Friday; Easter Monday; Labour Day, May 1; Arrival Day, May 5; Independence Day, May 26; CARICOM Day, July 4;  Emancipation Day, August 1; Diwali (as decreed); Christmas Day December 25; Boxing Day December 26.  Holidays that fall on a Sunday are observed the following Monday.

Date of CARICOM Membership

1 August, 1973

The Flag

Red  – People’s deal in nation-building

Black – Endurance and perseverance

Gold – Mineral resources

White – Rivers

Green  – Land

  Haiti

Country Profile

Ministry

Minister

CARICOM Energy Focal Point

Ministry of Public Works, Transportation and Communications
27 Rue Toussaint Louverture, Delmas 33
Port-au-Prince

Hon. M. Fritz Caillot
Minister of Public Works, Transportation and Communications

Mr. Nicholas Allien
Senior Energy Specialist, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Energy Cell

Energy Policy

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Location

Haiti, an 80% mountainous country, is located on the Western half of the island previously known as Hispaniola, 80 km east of Cuba and 750 miles south-east of Miami, Florida.

The Dominican Republic occupies the Eastern two-third of Hispaniola.

History

Columbus encountered the island of Hispaniola, populated by the Arawak Indian in 1492. In 1503, the Spanish brought the first African slaves to the island and in 1697 the colony was ceded to France. In 1791, a voodoo priest by the name of Boukman started an uprising, subsequently led by Toussaint L’ouverture, who launched a general slave revolt. On 1 January 1804, Jean Jacques Dessalines proclaimed the island independent. Haiti is the world first “Black Republic” and the second oldest Republic in the Western Hemisphere.

The power struggles and political instability that marked the Haitian history throughout the 19th century ended in United States of America (USA) intervention that lasted from 1915-1934.

A new period of political upheavals after the departure of the U.S. troops opened the way to a 30-year long dictatorship by the Duvalier family.

On 7 February, 1986, a popular uprising put an end to the dictatorship. In 1990, the first free elections in the history of Haiti brought Jean-Bertrand Artistide to the presidency.

After seven months in power Aristide was forced into exile by a military coup on 30 September, 1991. With the help of the international community he was restored to power on 15 October, 1994.

Following the second free elections in 1995, Rene Preval succeeded Jean Bertrand Aristide as President.

In 2000, Jean Bertrand Aristide was once more elected to the Office of President, but in 2004, he was again forced from office amidst demonstrations and an insurgency. An interim administration was installed. In 2004, a United Nations (UN) Peacekeeping mission (MINUSTAH) was sent to Haiti to maintain stability and facilitate elections.

In 2006, Rene Preval was elected President for the second time.

In 2010, Haiti’s capital, Port au Prince was hit by a 7.2 magnitude earthquake which left more than 200 000 people dead and more than a million homeless.

In 2011, Michel Martelly was elected President of Haiti.

Economic Summary

Agriculture – the main crops being coffee, mangoes and cocoa – continues to occupy the dominant position in Haiti’s economy representing about 30% of the GDP. Forestry and fishing are also important sectors.

The tourism sector offered much export possibilities. The Caribbean Tourism Organisation (CTO) is assisting the Government towards realising the full potential of this sector.

Airport

Toussaint L’Overture International, Port au Prince

Business Hours

Commercial: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Monday to Friday.

Government: 8:00 am to 4:00 pm. Monday to Friday

National Holidays

Independence Day, January 1; Founding Fathers Day, January 2; Agriculture and Labour Day, May 18; Commemoration Day, May 1; Flag and University Day, May 18; Commemoration of the Battle of Vertieres Day, November 18; Christmas Day December 25; Boxing Day December 26.

Date of CARICOM Membership

2 July, 2002

The Flag

Red – Mulatto Community

Blue – Black Community

Centre – Coat of Arms

   Jamaica

Country Profile

Ministry

Minister

CARICOM Energy Focal Point

Ministry of Science, Energy and Technology
PCJ Building
36 Trafalgar Road
Kingston 10

Hon. Fayval Williams
Minister of Science, Energy and Technology

Mrs. Yvonne Barrett-Edwards
Director, Energy Economics and Planning Unit

Energy Policy

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Location

Jamaica is situated in the Caribbean Sea, 150 km south of Cuba and 160 km west of Haiti.

History

Jamaica was first settled by Amerindians. Columbus encountered the island in 1494, and it fell under Spanish possession from 1509 to 1655, before becoming a British colony.

During the social unrest of the 1930s, birth was given to two of the country’s major political parties. Alexander Bustamante formed the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP) while Norman Manley formed the People’s Indies Federation in 1958, but withdrew following a referendum in 1961. The PNP instituted a democratic socialist government from 1974-80, and the JLP established free-enterprise government from 1980.

Economic Summary

Jamaica’s economy is largely dependent on the services sectors for growth. In 2012, services accounted for almost 75 per cent of GDP, and the majority of Jamaica’s foreign exchange is gained from tourism, remittances and bauxite. The country is also one of the world’s largest suppliers of aluminium ore.

Agriculture, forestry and fishing also contribute to Jamaica’s foreign exchange earnings. There are considerable resources of both freshwater and sea fish.

Airport

Norman Manley International (Kingston), and Donald Sangster International (Montego Bay)

Business Hours

Commercial: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Monday to Friday

Government: 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 pm. Monday to Thursday; 8:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Friday

National Holidays

New Year’s Day, January 1;Ash Wednesday; Good Friday; Easter Monday; Labour Day, May 23; Emancipation Day, August 1; Independence Day, August 6; National Heroes Day, third Monday in October; Christmas Day December 25; Boxing Day December 26Holidays that fall on a Sunday are observed the following Monday. In the case of Labour Day only, if this falls on a Saturday or Sunday then Monday will be a holiday

Date of CARICOM Membership

1 August, 1973

The Flag

Black – Hardship overcome and to be faced

Gold  – Natural wealth and beauty of sunlight

Green – Hope and agricultural resources

   Montserrat

Country Profile

Ministry

Minister

CARICOM Energy Focal Point

Ministry of Communications, Works and Labour
P.O. Box 344
Brades

Hon. Paul Lewis
Minister of Communications, Works and Labour

Mrs. Beverley Mendes
Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Communications, Works and Labour

Energy Policy

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Location

A British overseas territory in the Leeward Islands, Montserrat is one of the chain of islands from the Lesser Antilles. It is located 40km (25mi) south-west of Antigua. The island is volcanic and mountainous.

History

Sighted by Columbus in 1493, Montserrat was first settled by Anglo-Irish colonists in 1632. The island was twice occupied by the French, but was otherwise continuously under British rule. In 1967, Montserrat opted for colonial status instead of Associated Statehood. In 1995, after being dormant for 400 years, the Langs Soufriere Hills Volcano came to life and by 1997 the majority of the population was forced to leave the island. Volcanic activity increased in 2009 and in 2010, the Langs Soufriere dome partially collapsed sending ash plumes some 40 000 feet in the air. Only the northern section of the island is now inhabited. The Government now functions from Brades.

Economic Summary

From about mid-1995, normal life was disrupted due to severe volcanic eruptions on the island. By mid-1998 when volcanic activity subsided, normalcy returned, but with a significantly reduced population and economic activity.

The once vibrant tourism industry is re-emerging as a major contributor to the national economic growth. The fledging industry caters mainly for day excursions.

Airport 

John A. Osborne Airport

Seaport

Montserrat- Antigua and Barbuda Ferry Service

Heliport

Gerald Heliport

Business Hours

Commercial: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Monday to Friday.

Government: 8:00 a.m. to 2:00 pm. Monday to Friday

National Holidays

New Year’s Day, January 1;St. Patrick’s day, March 17; Good Friday; Easter Monday; Labour Day, first Monday in May; Whit Monday; Queen’s Birthday, second Saturday in June; Emancipation Day, first Monday in August; Christmas Day December 25; Boxing Day December 26; Festival Day, December 31Holidays that fall on a Sunday are observed the following Monday.

Date of CARICOM Membership

1 May, 1974

The Flag

Blue  – British ensign including Union Jack

Badge  – Lady with cross and harp representing Christianity and Irish heritage

   Saint Kitts and Nevis

Country Profile

Ministry

Minister

CARICOM Energy Focal Point

Ministry of Public Infrastructure, Post, Urban Development and Transport
Water Services Department Building
Needsmust
Basseterre

Hon. Ian Liburd
Minister of Public Infrastructure, Post, Urban Development and Transport

Mrs. Brenda Boncamper
Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Public Infrastructure, Post, Urban Development and Transport

Energy Policy

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Location

St. Kitts and Nevis is located in the Leeward’s Islands group in the eastern Caribbean. A channel of about 3.2 km in width separates the two islands.

History

St Kitts and Nevis was originally settled by the Amerindians (Caribs) and by the British in 1623, who fought with the French for possession. The islands were finally ceded to Britain in 1783, and gained independence in 1983.

Economic Summary

Both islands have pleasant scenery, good beaches and historic buildings, which have favoured the development of tourism as the economy’s most promising growth area. A deep-water harbour, cruise-ship and container facilities are significant features in this sector’s growth.

In the agricultural sector, sugar was the main crop for generations. St. Kitts and Nevis has, however, decided to stop sugar production as the sector became less economically viable.

There is also economic development in the manufacturing sectors. The main areas include food processing and production of beverages and electronic components.

Airport

Robert Llewlyn Bradshaw International (St. Kitts); Vance Amory International (Nevis)

Business Hours

Commercial: 8:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon to 4/4:30 p.m. Monday to Friday

Government: 8:30 a.m. to 12:00 noon, 1:00 p.m. to 4/4:30 p.m. Monday to Thursday; 8:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Friday

National Holidays

New Year’s Day, January 1;Carnival Day, January 2; Good Friday; Easter Monday; Labour Day, May 5;Whit Monday; Emancipation Day, first Monday in August; Culturama Day (sometime in  August); national Heroes’ Day, September 16; Independence Day, September 19; Christmas Day December 25; Boxing Day December 26Holidays that fall on a Sunday are observed the following Monday.

Date of CARICOM Membership

26 July, 1974

The Flag

Green – Fertility

Red  – Struggle for independence

Black – African heritage

Yellow – Sunshine

White Stars   – Hope and freedom

   Saint Lucia

Country Profile

Ministry

Minister

CARICOM Energy Focal Point

Ministry of Infrastructure, Ports, Energy and Labour
Union Office Complex
Union
Castries

Hon. Stephenson King
Minister of Infrastructure, Ports, Energy and Labour

Mr. Ivor Daniel
Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Infrastructure, Ports, Energy and Labour

Energy Policy

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Location

Saint Lucia is located in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. Part of the Lesser Antilles, it is located north of the islands of St. Vincent and the Grenadines and south of Martinique.

History

Amerindians were the first settlers. French colonization began in 1650 and the struggle for possession between the French and English ended in 1815 with the island becoming an English colony. It gained independence in 1979.

Economic Summary

Generally, the economy is diversified, with tourism being the main source of foreign exchange. Pleasant climate and sandy beaches are among the natural features supporting the development of this sector.

The manufacturing sector spans a range of activities. These include paper products, food processing, beverage production, clothing and assembly of electronic components. Agriculture is also a key sector with bananas, cocoa, coconuts, citrus fruits and livestock being of economic importance.

There is also a small offshore financial sector with much potential to attract good-quality business. Initiatives are also being directed at developments in informatics.

Economic activities are supported by strategic infrastructure such as ports in Castries and Vieux Fort, which have container transshipment terminal facilities. At Cul de Sac, south of Castries, there is an oil transshipment terminal.

Airport

Hewanorra (Vieux Fort) and George F. Charles International (Vigie)

Business Hours

Commercial: 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Monday to Friday.

Government: 8:30 a.m. to 12:30 noon, 1:30 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. Monday to Friday

National Holidays

New Year’s Day, January 1; New Year’s Holiday, January 2; Independence Day February 22; Good Friday; Easter Monday; Labour Day, May 1; Whit Monday; Corpus Christi (sometime in June) Carnival Monday (third Monday in July) Emancipation Day, August 1; Thanksgiving Day, first Monday in October; National Day, December 13; Christmas Day December 25; Boxing Day December 26Holidays that fall on a Sunday are observed the following Monday.

Date of CARICOM Membership

1 May, 1974

The Flag

Cerulean Blue  – Ocean

Yellow   – Golden sands and sunshine

Black and White  – Racial Harmony among all communities

Centre – Twin conical pitons, famous national landmark, symbolizing the aspirations of the people

   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Country Profile

Ministry

Minister

CARICOM Energy Focal Point

Ministry of National Security, Air and Sea Port Development
2nd Floor, Ministerial Building, Halifax Street,
Kingstown

Dr. The Hon. Ralph Gonsalves
Prime Minister and Minister of Finance, Economic Planning,National Security, Legal Affairs and Grenadines Affairs

Mr. Ellsworth Dacon
Director, Energy Unit, Ministry of National Security, Air and Sea Port Development

Energy Policy

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Location

St. Vincent is situated in the Windward Island at the lower end of the Caribbean chain; the Grenadines comprise a chain of little islands and cays between St. Vincent and Grenada. It is volcanic and densely forested.

History

St. Vincent and the Grenadines was originally settled by Amerindians. Struggle for possession by the French and the British ended with the British in control in 1783. The island gained independence in 1979.

Economic Summary

Economic activity is predominantly in agriculture, with bananas being the main export crop, and the country is the world’s main supplier of arrowroot. Flowers and foliage plants are among the export commodities. Plantains and sweet potatoes are exported to Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, and other regional markets.

There is a small manufacturing sector catering primarily for the Regional market. A brewery and a rice and flour mill are in full operation, along with electronic components assembly ventures.

Tourism is concentrated mainly on the Grenadines island chain where there are high quality beaches featuring luxury villas, hotels and yachts.

A small offshore financial sector came on stream from about the mid-1990s.

Airports

Argyle International Airport, St. Vincent

James F. Mitchell, Bequia

Canouan Airport

Mustique Airport

Union Island Airport- Union Island

Business Hours

Commercial: 8:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon, 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Monday to Friday

Government: 8:30 a.m. to 12:00 noon, 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Monday to Friday

National Holidays

New Year’s Day, January 1; National Heroes’ Day, March 14; Good Friday; Easter Monday; National Workers Day, May 1; Whit Monday; Carnival Monday and Tuesday (either the first or second weed in July) Emancipation Day, August 1; Independence Day October 27; Christmas Day, December 25; Boxing Day December 26Holidays that fall on a Sunday are observed the following Monday.

Date of CARICOM Membership

1 May, 1974

The Flag

Green diamonds  – Gems of the Antilles

   Suriname

Country Profile

Ministry

Minister

CARICOM Energy Focal Point

Ministry of Natural Resources
Mr. Dr. J.C. de Mirandastraat 13-15
Paramaribo

Hon. Regilio J. Dodson
Minister of Natural Resources

Mr. Dave Abeleven
Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Natural Resources

Energy Policy

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Location

Suriname is situated in the northeast coast of South America; it is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the north, Guyana on the west, French Guiana to the east and Brazil to the South.

History

Amerindians inhabited the country up to the 15th century. Settlers came from England, The Netherlands, France, and Germany, among others. Africans were brought as slaves, and indentured labourers from India, Indonesia, and China were brought to Suriname during the 18th century. Struggle for possession by the French, British and Dutch ended with control by the Netherlands in 1815. Slavery was abolished in 1863. The country gained independence in 1975. In February 1980, a military coup brought Commander Desi Bouterse into Office. In 1987, national elections were held and democracy was restored. In October 1997, an attempt to overthrow the government was foiled.

Economic Summary

Agriculture is an important economic sector for Suriname. The main crops are rice, fruit (including bananas) and vegetables. Rice accounts for approximately half of total cultivated land. The export of shrimp and scale fish also contribute to Suriname’s foreign exchange earning. There is a small fish farming sector producing fish, shrimp and crab meat, mainly for domestic consumption.

The timber industry is a growth sector, supported by the abundance of tropical forestry resources.

Suriname is the eighth largest bauxite producer. Alumina and aluminium are crucial to the economy, accounting for more than two-thirds of exports earnings. Gold mining is a growth area despite suffering severely from weak world prices in the late 1990s.

The manufacturing sector continues to hold its own. This sector includes aluminium production, import-substituting industries using local and importing inputs, and processing of local agricultural products. Food processing is about 60% of manufacturing activities.

Tourism is a prime potential growth sector. The interior rainforest and coastal wetlands augur well for a vibrant eco-tourism industry.

Airports

Johan Adolf Pengel International

Zanderij

Business Hours

Commercial: 7:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Monday to Friday. 7:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. on Saturday.

Government: 7:00 a.m. to 3:00p.m., Monday to Thursday, 7:00 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. on Friday.

National Holidays

New Year’s Day, January 1; Eid –Ul-Fitr (as decreed); Phagwah (as decreed) Good Friday; Easter Monday; Labour Day, May 1; Keti-Koti / Emancipation Day, July 1; Independence Day, November 25; Republic Day, September 24; Christmas Day, December 25; Boxing  Day, December 26. Holidays that fall on a Sunday are not automatically observed the Monday following; however, holiday sometimes given at the President’s discretion.

Date of CARICOM Membership

4 July, 1995

The Flag

Green – Fertility of the Nation, hopeful expectation, the new Suriname

White  – Justice and liberty

Red  – Love which urges the nation to action, progressiveness

Yellow – Sacrifice

Yellow Star  – Sacrifice in unity and orientation on the golden future

   Trinidad and Tobago

Country Profile

Ministry

Minister

CARICOM Energy Focal Point

Ministry of Energy and Energy Industries
Level 26, Tower C
International Waterfront Centre
# 1 Wrightson Road
Port of Spain

Sen. the Hon. Franklin Khan
Minister of Energy and Energy Industries

Mrs. Penelope Bradshaw-Niles
Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Energy and Energy Industries

Energy Policy

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Location

The twin-Island Republic is the southern-most islands of the Lesser Antilles, separated from Venezuela by 11km (7mi) of water known as the straits of the Gulf of Paria. Trinidad, the larger of the two islands is 30 km (19 mi) from Tobago.

History

Both islands were first settled by Amerindians. Trinidad became a Spanish outpost from the late 16th century. French and British settlers, slaves from Africa and indentured labourers from India came during the 18th century. The two islands joined as one state in 1888 and gained independence in 1962. In 1976, the twin–island State became a Republic within the Commonwealth, with the President as Head of State.

Executive power lies with the Prime Minster and the Cabinet. The legislature consists of an elected House of Representatives and an appointed Senate.

Tobago has a separate House of Assembly, which is responsible for some of the island’s domestic affairs.

Economic Summary

The petroleum sector is by far the most important sector with petrochemicals and natural gas enjoying prime economic focus.

This shift in emphasis away from crude oil production was to cash in on the abundant natural gas supplies, which are used as feedstock in the domestic production of methanol and ammonia for export. Trinidad and Tobago is one of the world’s largest producers of both commodities. In 1999, a huge Atlantic Liquefied Natural Gas project came on stream, catering for export production of the gas as a fuel.

The energy sector has been boosting some sub-sectors, namely distribution, transportation and construction, earning a total share of over one-third of GDP.

Local manufacture (excluding oil refining and petrochemical industries) continues to grow. The agriculture sector also contributes to an overall sound economy.

Tourism is an important growth sector. A good blend of cultural diversity and special interest areas are among the features supporting this sector. The famous annual carnival and Jazz festival, which is held in Tobago, offer much potential for boasting this sector.

Airport

Piarco International (Trinidad) and Crown Point International (Tobago)

National Holidays

New Year’s Day, January 1; Eid –Ul-Fitr (as decreed); Diwali (as decreed); Spiritual Shouter Baptist Liberation Day, March 30; Good Friday; Easter Monday; Corpus Christi; Indian Arrival Day, May 30; Labour Day, June 19; Emancipation Day, August 1; Independence Day, August 31; Republic Day, September 24; Christmas Day, December 25; Boxing  Day, December 26. Carnival Monday and Tuesday are not Public Holidays. Holidays that fall on a Sunday are observed the Monday following immediately. When two holidays fall on the same date the following day is given as a public holiday.

Date of CARICOM Membership

1 August, 1973

The Flag

Red  – Warmth and vitality of the sun, people and nation

Black – Island’s wealth

White – Waves breaking on the nation’s shores

CARICOM Energy Partners

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